The term samizdat as an underground and officially unauthorized production of literary, religious, political and other texts emerged in the Soviet Union in the second half of the twentieth century. The original methods of self-publishing and self-distribution of censored materials spread in the Soviet dominated countries and transformed with different types of media and technological development (resulting in creation of, for instance, homemade phonograph records - roentgenizdat, magnitizdat or VHS cassette reproduction). In this way some samizdat production became not just a method of cultural (re)production of dissident elites but also a way of proliferating of popular culture. As topical debates on piracy, copyright and censorship of internet content demonstrate, alternative ways of distributing political ideas and cultural artifacts remain relevant also in the age of electronic communication.